Tag Archives: carbohydrates

The not-so-sweet truth about sugar and your health.

You are probably aware that eating too much sugar is bad for your health. Excessive sugar intake causes hormonal changes and inflammation that can lead to obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. For decades an emphasis was placed on lowering fat intake, especially saturated fat and cholesterol, to reduce the risk of obesity and heart disease.

Unfortunately, much of this advice was misguided and while fat intake went down, sugar consumption in processed and prepared food increased. This is now seen as a primary cause of the current obesity and diabetes epidemic. The impact of sugar on health and steps you can take to reduce sugar intake are the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.

Sugar cubes

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Tomorrow is Healthy Lunch Day. Here’s why it matters and why you should do it every day.

Tomorrow is National Healthy Lunch Day, an event promoted by the American Diabetes Association to raise awareness about the need to make healthy choices at lunchtime. We all know that eating breakfast is an important way to start the day. What we may not appreciate is the role a good lunch plays in promoting good health, from helping with weight control to managing diabetes. A healthy lunch can also affect your focus and attention, helping your performance at work or school.


lunch

A healthy lunch is important for treating and preventing many health problems. Diabetes is a perfect example. Perhaps the most important aspect of managing diabetes is to control blood glucose levels throughout the day. Obviously, eating a meal will raise blood glucose. But eating a meal that is relatively low in carbohydrates, especially sugar [https://drbrianparr.wordpress.com/2016/02/29/sugar-and-your-health/], can provide energy without contributing to a spike in blood glucose. The glycemic index (GI) is a useful tool for selecting foods that have a lower impact on blood glucose. Keep in mind that the amount of carbohydrates you eat is important, too, so focusing only on GI isn’t enough. This is especially important for diabetics who take medications, including insulin, to help manage their diabetes.

The idea that eating lunch promotes weight loss sounds counterintuitive, but it works! Skipping a meal can lead to stronger feelings of hunger later in the day. And if you are hungrier you will likely eat more. So, an appropriate midday meal can help you eat less later in the day. Combined with regular exercise, eating appropriate meals and snacks is an essential aspect of weight loss and weight control.

Eating lunch provides energy and reduces hunger at a time when your breakfast is likely “wearing off.” This may help you feel more energetic and can enhance your attention, focus, and productivity. Of course, what you eat for lunch is as important as when you eat. Lots of sugar can make you feel sluggish, both physically and mentally. Unfortunately, added sugar is a big part of many restaurant meals and convenience foods, so the afternoon slump is a reality for many of us. Limiting sugar in both food and drinks can help you make healthier choices at lunch that can make you feel and work better in the afternoon.

“That afternoon slump you feel may be due to what you ate for lunch.”

A good lunch is especially important for children. In addition to providing energy to support growth and learning, lunch also presents an opportunity to teach children about healthy eating. This is critical since formal nutrition education isn’t part of the curriculum at most schools. Sadly, most school lunch programs provide meals that include too much added sugar and refined carbohydrates, inappropriate for growing and learning kids.

Many adults don’t fare much better with their lunch. For a lot of people, the two key criteria for lunch are that it is quick and convenient. And as we know, quick and convenient foods are rarely considered healthy, so this requires some effort to plan ahead and make careful choices.

What makes a healthy lunch? Pretty much the same recommendations for other meals also apply for lunch: low in added sugar and refined carbohydrates and high in fiber. Your lunch should include vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and protein, all of which are foods that can make you feel full longer. In the end, the effort and planning pay off by making you a healthier you!


Nutrition, exercise, and health information can be confusing. 
But it doesn't have to be that way.
What can I help you with?
 drbrianparr@gmail.com | http://twitter.com/drbrianparr
Video

Friday video pick: Be carb smart.

Nutrition can be confusing! Depending on the day, individual nutrients and whole foods may be good for you…or really bad. This is especially true for fats and carbohydrates, the major sources of calories in our diets. I have written about carbohydrates previously, but this video can also help you become carb smart!

How do carbohydrates impact your health? | via YouTube


Nutrition, exercise, and health information can be confusing. 
But it doesn't have to be that way.
What can I help you with?
 drbrianparr@gmail.com | http://twitter.com/drbrianparr

Know your nutrients: Carbohydrates

Nutrition and healthy eating are common themes in my writing, so it seems appropriate to provide more information about the major nutrients in our diets: carbohydrates, fats, and protein. These nutrients provide nearly all of the calories we eat and have a large impact on our health. Given the importance of these nutrients, there tends to be much confusion about the different forms they come in and how much of each we should eat.

In my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week I  begin with carbohydrates. If this looks familiar, there is good reason: I have written about this topic in the past. Considering that I am asked basic questions about carbohydrates (and fat and protein) frequently, it is worth revisiting. Plus, it’s summer vacation so I am giving myself a bit of a break!


 

Starchy-foods

Carbohydrates are an important energy source in your diet. All carbohydrates contain four calories per gram. Grains, fruits, and vegetables are good sources of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates include starches, naturally occurring and added sugars, and fiber.

Carbohydrates are produced as a result of photosynthesis in plants and are stored as complex carbohydrates or starches in grains and many vegetables and as simple sugars in other vegetables and fruits. When you eat carbohydrates, your body breaks down the starches and converts the sugars to glucose, or blood sugar, which is used for energy.

The extent to which a food affects blood glucose is called the glycemic index, or GI. Refined carbohydrates, like white rice, pasta, and flour, and sugars typically have a high glycemic index, meaning they cause spikes in blood glucose. Whole grains, like whole wheat, whole oats, and brown rice, have more of a “low and slow” effect on blood glucose. This can help with blood glucose control and may affect appetite. For these reasons, low GI foods like complex carbohydrates from whole grains are called “good carbs,” in contrast to high GI refined grains and sugars, known as “bad carbs.” In reality, the glycemic index can provide a guide for selecting carbohydrates in the diet, but is no guarantee you are making healthy choices.

Carbohydrates also include fiber, the nondigestible portion of plants. Whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are rich sources of fiber while refined grains and sugars contain little, if any, fiber. Fiber comes in two forms, soluble and non-soluble. Non-soluble fiber, also called roughage, promotes good digestive health. Soluble fiber, like that found in oats, may help lower blood cholesterol. Studies show that diets higher in fiber tend to promote weight loss over time.

You should make an effort to reduce your intake of sugars, especially added sugars, in your diet. Even though all sugars have the same number of calories, foods and beverages containing added sugars should be avoided. Look for “corn syrup” and “high fructose corn syrup” on the label to identify added sugars. You may be surprised how much added sugar you consume! Fruits or 100% fruit juices are a healthy choice since they are rich in vitamins and minerals, even though they contain sugar.

Carbohydrates should be the major part of your diet. Current recommendations call for 45–65% of your daily calories to come from carbohydrates, so a person who eats 2000 calories per day should consume about 300 grams of carbohydrate. Sugars should be limited to less than 10% of calories, so the majority should be complex carbohydrates.

You can meet this goal by reducing your intake of sugars, especially added sugars, and refined grains while increasing your consumption of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables that are high in fiber. When comparing food labels, look for foods that contain whole grains (the first ingredient should be something like “whole wheat flour”) and higher levels of fiber. But be aware that some foods, like many breakfast cereals, contain whole grains but are also high in added sugar.

The best advice is to get the majority of your carbohydrates from real food, including vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes, rather than from processed foods.


Nutrition, exercise, and health information can be confusing. 
But it doesn't have to be that way.
What can I help you with?
 drbrianparr@gmail.com | http://twitter.com/drbrianparr

 

 

 

Skip the smoothie, have a burger? Fast food for exercise recovery.

Many athletes use specialized supplements before, during, and after exercise to improve performance and enhance strength and endurance gains from training. Many non-athletes also use similar supplements, even though they may not need them. And a recent study suggests that fast food, literally meals from McDonald’s, can work as well as more expensive sports supplements for promoting muscle recovery following intense exercise. I try to make sense of all of this in my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.



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After exercise, many athletes consume specialized beverages and foods that supply nutrients to help their muscles recover. These recovery drinks generally contain some combination of carbohydrates (sugar) and protein and come in liquid, shake, or smoothie form. There are also energy bars specifically formulated for use after exercise. Research shows that these carbohydrate-protein recovery drinks and foods enhance muscle recovery and adaptations to training in some athletes. Even if you aren’t an athlete, you may consume these products after you work out. Let’s explore when and for whom these recovery products might be useful.

Intense endurance exercise—think of a distance runner, cyclist, or triathlete—uses muscle glycogen as a fuel. Muscle glycogen is a storage form of glucose, sugar that the muscle converts into energy. During prolonged exercise sessions that last at least 60–90 minutes, muscle glycogen levels can be severely depleted. Resynthesizing that muscle glycogen is a priority following exercise.

Athletes who are engaging in intense resistance training to build muscle and strength may also benefit from a recovery drink. Weight training stimulates protein synthesis in the muscle, so it makes sense that consuming additional protein would be beneficial. As new muscle protein is formed, both strength and muscle size are increased.

It has also been shown that combining the carbohydrates with protein results in more rapid muscle glycogen replenishment and increases muscle protein synthesis. This is why many specialized recovery drinks and foods include a combination of carbohydrates and protein. The best time to consume carbohydrates to restore muscle glycogen levels is immediately following exercise. Similarly, the muscle is most responsive to extra protein immediately after a resistance training session.

Perhaps these recovery drinks, bars, and shakes aren’t even necessary. Sports nutritionists have long recommended conventional foods and beverages for athletes after exercise. Research shows that chocolate milk is just as effective as more expensive supplements for replenishing muscle glycogen and promoting muscle protein synthesis. Remarkably, according to a study published last week, fast food may work just as well!

In this study cyclists were fed either commercial recovery aids or food from McDonald’s including pancakes, sausage, juice, a burger, fries, and soda after they completed an intense exercise session. Importantly, the meals contained equal amount of calories and nutrients. It turns out that there was no significant difference in how quickly muscle glycogen was replenished or in performance in a subsequent exercise bout between the two conditions. While the authors don’t recommend eating more fast food, this study suggests that foods not typically thought of as sports nutrition products can be effective for muscle recovery following vigorous exercise.

But what about people who engage in regular exercise to improve fitness or lose weight? The benefits of recovery drinks in athletes exist because the intense training causes changes in the muscle that allow the extra carbohydrates and protein to have a positive effect. Training at a lower intensity is unlikely to create this stimulus in the muscle, so these nutrients would not have a significant benefit. Simply put, most people don’t train hard enough to need a recovery drink.

The bottom line is that these recovery aids are not always necessary and you can get the same benefits from regular food. Something else to keep in mind is that these supplements, especially in shake or smoothie form, can be high in calories. It is entirely possible to consume more calories in a recovery beverage than you burn during exercise. This could diminish the effect of exercise on weight loss and may actually lead to weight gain. For most of us, a sensible diet with regular exercise is the key to meeting fitness and weight loss goals.

Calories Still Count!

The debate about whether diet and exercise are the cause of or good treatments for obesity has been going for some time. A familiar point of argument is the role of total calories vs. the source of those calories.A new model of how obesity illustrates how calories in, calories out may not be the initial step in the cascade of physiological and behavioral factors that lead to significant fat gain. But this doesn’t change the fact modifying eating and activity behaviors are a key step in the development of obesity—and the key to weight loss.This is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.


Eat less, exercise more. Calories in, calories out.

These phrases are probably familiar to you if you have tried to lose weight. This is because these concepts make up the traditional explanation for why people gain weight and the most common method of losing weight.

More and more research suggests that gaining and losing weight might involve more that the simple math of counting calories. It may be that the source of the calories matters as much as the total amount that you eat.

However, this doesn’t mean that you can ignore the calories you eat and expend through exercise and other activity. While it may be true that the quality of the food we eat is important, calories still count.

A recent article in the Journal of the American Medical Association proposes an alternative to the classic model of how weight gain occurs. Traditionally, an imbalance between calories in and calories out causes obesity. According to this model, eating too much and not being active enough results in increased fat storage.

The new model suggests that diet quality, especially the type and amount of carbohydrates, combined with genetics and lifestyle factors including getting enough sleep and excessive stress leads to fat accumulation. The excess fat alters levels of hormones and other factors that stimulate hunger and inhibit energy expenditure, including physical activity.

In the new model, increasing fat mass comes first and excessive food intake and inadequate activity follows. The end result is the same, though: a small increase in body fat turns into obesity.

This seems to suggest that carbohydrate intake, especially from refined grains and sugars, is the main culprit. This is good news for people who follow and promote low-carb diets! It also gives the impression that exercise isn’t as important as previously believed.

But a closer look at the new model shows that obesity—storage of excessive body fat—really is the result of too many calories in and too few calories out. The difference is that the eating and activity behaviors is driven by other factors.

The fact of the matter is that diet quality, genetics, and factors such as stress and sleep do play a role weight gain. Changes in hormones, sugars, and fats in the blood are real and powerful physiological signals that certainly contribute to obesity.

But so do changes in how much we eat and how active we are. It would be wrong to disregard these behavioral factors and the important role they play not only in body weight regulation, but in health in general.

Furthermore, the traditional calories in, calories out model of weight gain leads to a sensible treatment for obesity: Eat less, exercise more. Even though these simple recommendations can be challenging to implement, certainly in the long term, people who follow this advice do lose weight.

Even in the new model, calories in must be greater than calories out to lead to the significant fat gain that characterizes obesity. Additionally, the focus on the food quality is also consistent with this idea. People who get more of their calories from refined grains and sugars tend to consume more total calories.

As of now, the only treatments we have for obesity focus on changing energy intake and energy expenditure. This almost always involves altering eating and activity behaviors and frequently includes other lifestyle changes including stress management and getting enough sleep.

Given this new model of obesity, the best way to lose or maintain weight is not new at all: Eat less, move more, chill out!