Tag Archives: healthy eating

Know your nutrients: Protein

For the last two weeks, I have written about carbohydrates and fats. This week in my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard I am covering protein, another essential macronutrient in your diet.

Protein-rich_Foods


Protein is part of all cells and is the main component of muscles. Proteins are made up of building blocks called amino acids. The human body requires 20 amino acids for the synthesis of its proteins. Your body can produce some of these amino acids, so they are called non-essential because you do not need to get them from your diet. There are nine essential amino acids that cannot be made by the body and are obtained only from food. If the protein in a food supplies enough of the essential amino acids, it is called a complete protein. An incomplete protein is one that does not supply all the essential amino acids.

All meat and other animal products are sources of complete proteins. These include beef, lamb, pork, poultry, fish, shellfish, eggs, milk, and milk products. Protein in plant foods (such as grains, legumes, nuts, fruits, and vegetables) are either low in or lack one or more of the essential amino acids. These food sources are considered incomplete proteins. One exception is soy protein, which contains all of the essential amino acids.

Plant proteins can be combined to form a complete protein. This is called complementing. Examples of complementing plant proteins are food combinations such as rice with beans or black-eyed peas, beans with corn or wheat tortillas, and hummus, which combines chick peas with sesame paste. Since plant sources of protein are lower in fat and higher in fiber than meat, there are health benefits from getting more protein from plants.

A diet low in protein could lead to poor growth in children or result in muscle loss. For this reason, many people, especially athletes, are concerned about their protein intake. The typical diet for most people contains more than enough protein, so this concern is often unwarranted. People who follow vegetarian or vegan diets do need to pay extra attention to their protein intake. This is especially true for vegetarian athletes.

The amount of recommended daily protein depends on age, medical conditions, and activity level. The recommended intake for protein is 0.8 g protein per kg of body weight (or about 0.4 g protein per pound), so a 200 lb. person would require about 80 g protein per day. In general, two to three servings of protein-rich food will meet the daily needs of most adults. For example, four ounces of meat contains about 40 g protein, one cup of cooked beans contains about 15 g protein, and two slices of whole wheat bread have about 6 g protein.

Protein needs are higher for children, pregnant women, and athletes. That said, the average American’s protein intake is sufficient for most of these special situations. While athletes who are training to add muscle require much more protein than the typical adult, the average intake of most athletes is sufficient to meet these needs. In cases when it is not, the recommendation is to get extra protein from food, not supplements.

Since you probably get enough protein in your diet already, you should focus on healthier sources of protein. Select lean meat, poultry without skin, fish, lentils, and legumes often. Also try adding soy protein to your diet by eating tofu, soy milk, and soy beans (edamame) since soy protein contains beneficial compounds called phytochemicals. As always, you should get your protein by eating naturally protein-rich foods rather than through supplements or processed foods with added protein.


 

Know your nutrients: Carbohydrates

Nutrition and healthy eating are common themes in my writing, so it seems appropriate to provide more information about the major nutrients in our diets: carbohydrates, fats, and protein. These nutrients provide nearly all of the calories we eat and have a large impact on our health. Given the importance of these nutrients, there tends to be much confusion about the different forms they come in and how much of each we should eat. Carbohydrates are the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.


Starchy-foods

Carbohydrates are an important energy source in your diet. All carbohydrates contain four calories per gram. Grains, fruits, and vegetables are good sources of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates include starches, naturally occurring and added sugars, and fiber.

Carbohydrates are produced as a result of photosynthesis in plants and are stored as complex carbohydrates or starches in grains and many vegetables and as simple sugars in other vegetables and fruits. When you eat carbohydrates, your body breaks down the starches and converts the sugars to glucose, or blood sugar, which is used for energy.

The extent to which a food affects blood glucose is called the glycemic index, or GI. Refined carbohydrates, like white rice, pasta, and flour, and sugars typically have a high glycemic index, meaning they cause spikes in blood glucose. Whole grains, like whole wheat, whole oats, and brown rice, have more of a “low and slow” effect on blood glucose. This can help with blood glucose control and may affect appetite.

For these reasons, low GI foods like complex carbohydrates from whole grains are called “good carbs,” in contrast to high GI refined grains and sugars, known as “bad carbs.” In reality, the glycemic index can provide a guide for selecting carbohydrates in the diet, but is no guarantee you are making healthy choices.

Carbohydrates also include fiber, the nondigestible portion of plants. Whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are rich sources of fiber while refined grains and sugars contain little, if any, fiber. Fiber comes in two forms, soluble and non-soluble. Non-soluble fiber, also called roughage, promotes good digestive health. Soluble fiber, like that found in oats, may help lower blood cholesterol. Studies show that diets higher in fiber tend to promote weight loss over time.

You should make an effort to reduce your intake of sugars, especially added sugars, in your diet. Even though all sugars have the same number of calories, foods and beverages containing added sugars should be avoided. Look for “corn syrup” and “high fructose corn syrup” on the label to identify added sugars. You may be surprised how much added sugar you consume! Fruits or 100% fruit juices are a healthy choice since they are rich in vitamins and minerals, even though they contain sugar.

Carbohydrates can be a major part of your diet. Current recommendations call for 45–65% of your daily calories to come from carbohydrates, so a person who eats 2000 calories per day should consume about 300 grams of carbohydrate. Sugars should be limited to less than 10% of calories, so the majority should be complex carbohydrates.

You can meet this goal by reducing your intake of sugars, especially added sugars, and refined grains while increasing your consumption of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables that are high in fiber. When comparing food labels, look for foods that contain whole grains (the first ingredient should be something like “whole wheat flour”) and higher levels of fiber. But be aware that some foods, like many breakfast cereals, contain whole grains but are also high in added sugar.

The best advice is to get the majority of your carbohydrates from real food, including vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes, rather than from processed foods.


Be thankful for family, friends, and food— real food—this Thanksgiving​.

This is Thanksgiving week, and people throughout the country are planning a feast that includes traditional dishes and family favorites. Even though many of these are not the healthiest choices, they make an appearance on the table each year. For many, Thanksgiving dinner is a day marked by overindulgence and poor nutrition choices.

In an effort to make Thanksgiving dinner healthier, recommendations for modifying or replacing traditional dishes are a common theme in magazines, on the morning TV shows, and on the web. While these suggestions are meant to be helpful, I’m not sure they actually serve to make a significant impact on health. In fact, the foods we eat and the way we eat them may be the healthiest part of a traditional Thanksgiving dinner. This is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.


Photo by Craig Adderley from Pexels

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Juice is good, but eating whole fruits and vegetables is even better!

Nutrition information is often confusing and conflicting, making healthy food choices a challenge. Fortunately, there are some recommendations that are consistent. Among these is eating more fruit and vegetables. Depending on how you consume these foods, you may be missing some of the nutrients that make them so healthy.

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Second chance New Year’s resolutions for the whole family.

How are you doing on your New Year’s resolutions? Hopefully, you are still on track to meet your goals. If not, you are in good company. Research suggests that by this time well over halfof people who made New Year’s resolutions have either lost momentum or given up altogether and that only 8%will eventually achieve their goal.

It turns out that now is a perfect time to restart your stalled New Year’s resolution or finally get around to doing what you planned months ago. Since Labor Day marks the end of summer and the beginning of a new school year, so it is a natural time to set goals and make changes.

 

Here are some ideas for a few resolutions that your whole family can make that will help you all move, eat, and sleep better to make this new school year a happy and healthy one for everybody.

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How to stay healthy at work.

Many people are trying to create a healthier lifestyle by eating healthier, making time for exercise or other activity, and reducing stress. Frequently, the focus is on what they can do at home, from prepping meals to joining a gym or going to yoga class. But many people spend a major part of their day at work, where healthy options are often limited. From the box of donuts at a morning meeting to a quick fast food lunch, eating well at work can be difficult. And for people who have office jobs, it also likely means lots of time sitting at a desk.

Fortunately, there are things you can do to make your time at work a little less damaging to your health. Even better, these steps can also make you more productive and feel better throughout the day.

Parr at desk 2-11-16

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Let’s Agree to Agree About Food

Eating a healthy diet is a goal for many people to help them treat or prevent disease, improve exercise performance, or maintain a healthy body weight. If you pay attention to news about food and nutrition you have probably noticed that there is a great deal of controversy about what constitutes a healthy diet. It’s easy to find lists of foods to avoid and things to eat every day. Unfortunately, lists from different sources may not be the same or, worse, a food that is on one “never eat” list is on another “always eat” list.

There is a different approach you could take to plan the foundation for a truly health way to eat. Instead of focusing on what is different, think about what recommendations are shared among most “healthy” diets. Here is some diet advice that almost everyone agrees on. This is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.

Group of people eating

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Is chocolate healthy? That depends on what you mean by chocolate. And what you mean by healthy.

 

If you pay attention to nutrition news you may get the idea that achieving good health requires depriving yourself of foods you enjoy. Fortunately, this is not always the case. For example , eating certain types of chocolate has been linked to some health benefits.

The idea that chocolate may be healthy is no doubt welcome news for chocoholics. But it may leave you wondering if eating chocolate really is healthy. The answer depends on what you mean by chocolate and what you mean by healthy.

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It’s not about the diet. What you really need for successful weight loss.

If you are starting out 2019 by trying to lose weight, you are probably interested in finding the “best” diet. Unfortunately, there is no best diet for everyone, but there are some characteristics that you should look for in a diet. For example, a weight loss diet should be low (but not too low) in calories, reduce added sugar and excess carbohydrates, restrict portion sizes, emphasize healthy foods like fruits and vegetables, and promote healthy eating habits.

 

Real weight loss success depends on more than selecting the right diet. In fact, as long as your diet is low in calories, you will lose weight. However, this weight loss may be temporary and you, like many others, will gain it back later. There are factors beyond the specific diet you follow that are critical for losing weight and keeping it off. Since successful weight loss requires regular exercise, these same factors apply to exercise behaviors, too.

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Get out of debt—health debt—in 2019.

Getting out of debt is a worthwhile goal and a common New Year’s resolution. This almost always means financial debt, which is a burden for millions of Americans. Many individuals and families have gotten themselves into debt by spending too much and not saving enough. For most, this situation has been years in the making, has no simple solution, and will have an impact lasting years into the future. Reducing this debt is essential for achieving financial health.

This is not the only type of debt we face—many people are also in health debt. Poor eating habits and increasingly sedentary lifestyles have led to an obesity epidemic. The problem is widespread, since most Americans are overweight, fewer than half of US adults meet minimum recommendations for physical activity, and about one in six adults smoke. Alone and especially in combination, these poor health habits are the major causes of the most common, and preventable, diseases including diabetes, heart disease, and some cancers.

Even if we have not been diagnosed with diabetes or heart disease or other health problems, our lifestyle has put us on that path. Small changes in what we eat or how active we are have added up over the years to create a condition of poor health. And our overall health and potential complications get worse year after year, so the longer we are overweight and inactive, the worse our health is likely to be in the future. That is our health debt. This is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.

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