Tag Archives: fitness

Go ride your bike!

Summer is a great time to go for a bike ride. Aside from being a great way to get around, bicycling can improve physical, mental, and social health, and has environmental and economic benefits. This is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.
Bike ride


Going for a bike ride is a good way to meet physical activity goals. For most people, bicycling would help meet the minimum recommendation of 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity per day. At faster speeds, biking is an excellent exercise to improve fitness. For kids, riding a bike is a fun way to be active and teaches important movement skills.

Riding outdoors can promote enhanced feelings of energy and diminished fatigue, anxiety, anger, and sadness compared to similar activity conducted indoors. Additionally, some research suggests that outdoor activity, including bicycling, may improve attention, learning, and productivity in adults and children.

Bicycling is often done with others, whether that is a family bike ride or exercising with a cycling group. This strengthens social connections and allows people to share in the enjoyment of being active. Even if you ride alone, you are far less isolated from other people and your environment compared to driving a car. These connections to the community are an important part of health and happiness.

Replacing car trips with cycling is good for the environment, too. Every mile you drive releases carbon dioxide and other pollutants into the environment. Additionally, spending more time sitting in your car can also have negative effects on your mental and physical health. Biking has no such effects on the environment and has important health benefits including improved fitness, weight control, and greater feelings of wellbeing.

As an added bonus, driving less will mean using less gas. Even though gas prices are lower now than in recent years, every mile you don’t drive saves money. Plus, it costs far less to purchase and maintain a bike than it does a car, so it makes economic sense to ride your bike instead of drive when possible. If you think you drive too far bike, think again. Most people commute less than five miles to work and nearly half of all car trips are less than two miles. Both are reasonable distances to bike. Even if you have longer distances to travel, you could probably replace some car trips with active transportation.

Obviously, biking everywhere isn’t practical. It requires access to safe bike lanes and sidewalks that connect people’s homes to work, school, and other destinations. Sadly, this infrastructure doesn’t exist in most communities (including ours), which were built to support cars, not people. Whether or not we bike for exercise or transportation ourselves, we should all act as advocates for changes in the community that will make bicycling more realistic for everyone.

Something as simple as a family bike ride around the neighborhood or biking to work or to visit a friend can have important health, environmental, and economic benefits. Whenever and wherever you ride, keep in mind that common sense says you should always obey all traffic laws and wear a helmet.

Finally, if you haven’t been out on two wheels for some time, don’t worry—it’s just like riding a bike!


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Stay cool and get fit in the pool

It’s hot! Whether you are swimming laps or splashing in a lake, swimming is a great way to stay cool. Swimming is also an excellent exercise for improving your fitness and helping with weight loss.

This is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.

Swimmer


There is nothing that feels better than going for a swim on a hot summer day. Beyond being a fun way to cool down, swimming is a great way to get in shape. Swimming is also an excellent exercise for injury rehabilitation or for people with certain conditions like arthritis.

The fitness benefits of swimming are well established. Since swimming is a whole-body exercise it uses all of your major muscle groups, building strength, endurance, and aerobic fitness. Highly trained swimmers have VO2max values, considered the best measure of aerobic fitness, that are similar to runners and cyclists. If you have doubts about the fitness benefits of swimming, think about how muscular and lean Olympic swimmers are.

Depending on the stroke and speed, swimming ranges between 5 to 10 METs. (METs are units used to measure the intensity of activity; one MET is equivalent to sitting at rest) For example, doing the backstroke at a moderate speed is about 5 METs while swimming laps freestyle with vigorous effort is about 10 METs.

This range is similar to walking at 4 mph up to jogging at a 9 minute per mile pace. What if you are just spending time in the pool or lake rather than swimming laps? Swimming leisurely is 6 METs, still a decent workout.

Swimming is a great way to burn calories, too. Even at a moderate pace, swimming laps for 30 minutes can burn over 200 calories. The exact energy expenditure depends on the stroke (butterfly is highest, backstroke is lowest) and the speed, but for most people swimming will burn as many calories as spending the same amount of time exercising on land.

There are two major reasons for this. First, water is denser than air, so you need to expend more energy to move your body through the water. Second, swimming is a whole-body exercise which requires more muscle activity compared to walking or jogging which mostly involve the legs.

You may be surprised to learn that novice swimmers expend more energy per lap than elite swimmers. For example, one study showed that competitive swimmers expend only 280 calories to swim a mile, while less experienced swimmers burn about 440 calories to cover the same distance. The reason for this is that experienced swimmers are more efficient, so they expend less energy.

Aquatic exercise is popular for both therapeutic and fitness purposes, especially for people who don’t tolerate exercise on land well. When you are submerged up to your waist, 50% of your weight is supported; when you are up to your chest, about 75% is supported. This reduces the impact of exercise in the water, perfect for people who have arthritis, osteoporosis, severe obesity, or who are recovering from injuries.

Exercise in the water doesn’t have to mean swimming laps. Water aerobics, aqua walking or jogging, and resistance training using foam “weights” or webbed gloves offer safe ways to increase strength and endurance for almost everyone. Most fitness facilities that have a pool offer group aquatic exercise classes and you can find instructions online for exercises that you can do in your own pool.

The hot summer weather makes swimming and other water exercise appealing. But even if you don’t use the time for exercise, spending time playing in the pool or lake can still burn as many calories as going for a walk and is a great way to have fun and cool down!


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Unfit for service. Another consequence of obesity and poor fitness.

Obesity and poor fitness, in combination or alone, have serious consequences on both an individual and societal level. This includes poor health now and in the future as well as an economic cost (in the billions per year!) that includes medical expenses as well as indirect costs such as increased absenteeism and lower productivity in the workplace.

This is particularly alarming in children since obesity at a young age sets up a cycle that leads to lower levels of activity that can make the condition worse over time. In both children and adults, overweight and obesity are associated with low physical fitness and many people who are at a “normal” weight are unfit as well.

Unfortunately, the common pattern of inactivity and obesity can limit the ability to function optimally at school, work, or in leisure-time activities. In fact, many young people are ineligible for military service because of physical limitations due to poor fitness and being overweight. This is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.


Military fitness

A report from the Council for a Strong America finds that being overweight is the major reason that civilian military recruits are deemed medically unfit for service. Military training and service is physically demanding, requiring a high level of strength and endurance. These attributes are more likely to be lacking among overweight recruits.

Equally troubling is the fact that poor physical fitness disqualifies a high percentage of young men and women who are at a “healthy” weight. A 2010 report, written by a panel of retired military leaders, raises these same concerns, and has the ominous title, “Too Fat to Fight.” (A follow-up report, “Still Too Fat to Fight,” suggests that the situation hasn’t improved).

Interestingly, this is not a new problem. Large numbers of draftees who failed the induction exams due to physical reasons during WWI and WWII resulted in changes in physical education and nutrition programs in schools. Poor fitness among American children also led to the formation of the President’s Council on Youth Fitness in the 1950’s and an emphasis on physical fitness testing and education among school-aged children. In recent years, participation in physical education has declined, resulting in the current generation of overweight, unfit young people.

A recent study also examines the impact of obesity and poor fitness on careers in the military. Not only are many young people disqualified from military service, those who do enter basic training are more likely to sustain injuries that delay or terminate their training. These injuries are more likely to occur in recruits who are obese and unfit at entry. Furthermore, the prevalence of obesity and lower levels of physical activity is higher in states in the south and southeast. Considering that these are among the states send the most recruits to basic training, this limits a great many people from potential military service.

Taken together, these reports suggest that the continuing trend of obesity and poor fitness among American children may have national security implications. This emphasizes the fact that schools are critical to improving the health and military-readiness of our children.

Changes to school lunch and physical education programs are needed, but this is not a new recommendation. In fact, nutrition and exercise recommendations for children and schools already exist, but they are not followed, largely for political reasons. Perhaps the current condition of poor health and fitness among military recruits will motivate our leaders to implement effective exercise and nutrition programs in schools.


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Think about health AND wellness when making your New Year’s resolutions.

“Be healthier” is a common New Year’s Resolution, and almost everyone makes some effort to achieve and maintain good health. For many, this simply means not being sick. But being healthy goes beyond feeling good and involves actively talking steps to reduce the risk of disease and promote wellbeing. This is why not smoking, eating well, and being active are so important—these habits can improve your health now and help you maintain good health as you age.

But good physical health is only part of being truly “healthy.” This is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.

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The World Health Organization defines health as a state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. This is consistent with concept of wellness that is not limited to physical health, exercise, and nutrition and integrates physical, mental, and spiritual well-being. While wellness models vary, they almost all include a range of components associated with living a good life. The National Wellness Institute presents a concept of wellness that includes six dimensions that act and interact to contribute to quality of life. They include:

Social Wellness is the ability to relate to and connect with other people in our world. Our ability to positively interact with people and establish and maintain positive relationships with family, friends and co-workers contributes to our social wellness.

Emotional Wellness is the ability to understand ourselves and cope with the challenges life can bring. The ability to cope with stress and acknowledge and share feelings of anger, fear, sadness or stress; hope, love, joy and happiness in a productive manner contributes to emotional wellness.

Spiritual Wellness is the ability to establish peace and harmony in our lives. It includes the ability to link personal values and actions and to realize a common purpose.

Intellectual Wellness is the ability to open our minds to new ideas and experiences that can be applied to personal decisions, group interaction and community betterment. Engaging in creative and stimulating mental activities to expand your knowledge and use information effectively desire to learn new concepts, improve skills and seek challenges in pursuit of lifelong learning are characteristics of intellectual wellness.

Occupational Wellness is the ability to get personal fulfillment from our jobs or our chosen career fields while still maintaining balance in our lives. Our desire to contribute in our careers to make a positive impact on the organizations we work in and to society as a whole leads to Occupational Wellness..

Physical Wellness is the ability to maintain a healthy quality of life that allows us to get through our daily activities without undue fatigue or physical stress. Adopting healthful habits while avoiding negative habits will lead to optimal physical wellness.

Other models also include additional components of wellness, including:

Environmental Wellness is the ability to recognize how your behavior impacts your surroundings, be it your home, community, and planet, how the physical world impacts you, and how to you can make a positive impact on the quality of our environment.

Financial Wellness includes managing your money effectively, living within your means, and making wise financial decisions now and for the future.

Obviously, these are all important for achieving health and wellness. Unfortunately, many programs which intend to promote health or wellness actually only prevent or treat disease. As you make your New Year’s Resolutions, be mindful that wellness is an active process through which we become aware of, and make choices toward, a more vibrant and successful life and take steps to look beyond fitness and nutrition to embrace wellness.


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Invest in your health by following the Buffett plan.

Making smart investments that pay off over time is a key to creating wealth and sustaining financial wellbeing as we age. Warren Buffett is widely regarded as a successful investor and financial leader. His careful investment strategies have allowed him to amass an impressive personal fortune and lead to him be considered one of the foremost experts on investing.

For these reasons, Buffett’s business and financial advice is respected and followed by many people to achieve wealth and financial security. This same strategy can be applied to health with the same good results. Here is how following Buffett’s investing strategy can help you achieve good health now and maintain it long into the future. Just like saving for retirement, you will be glad you have plenty of good health in the bank when you get older.

This is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week. Since I am not an expert in the world of finance and investing, I did run this by a colleague from the School of Business to make sure I was on the right track.

couple jogging on beach


Make smart, not popular, choices.  Many of Buffett’s investments have been in industries or companies that others have overlooked in favor of more trendy options. However popular, these investments may not be smart choices in the long run. Similarly, new exercise trends and popular dietary supplements may seem appealing for weight loss, but the results are often disappointing. Sometimes the best approach for health is something much less exciting: making smart diet choices and daily exercise will almost always pay off for years to come.

Plan for the long-term success, not quick results.  Investments promising that you will get rich overnight are appealing. While you may make money initially, in the long run you may not have anything to show for it or you may end up losing money. Many fad diets and exercise trends are the health equivalent of get rich quick schemes. For example, they may promote weight loss right away, but fall short when it comes to keeping the weight off. Some popular high-intensity training programs can lead to rapid increases in fitness and strength. But for some people they can lead to injury or, at the very least, a negative experience that may turn them off from exercise in the future. Just as Warren Buffett makes investment decisions that will promote long-term income, you should make diet and exercise choices that will pay off for years to come. Even though the health “income” may accumulate more slowly, it is more likely to be lasting.

Diversify your investments.  Buffett’s strategy has been to invest in multiple industries. This allows him to maximize income and insulates his portfolio from losses in any one area. Similarly, you should diversify your health investments. Instead of focusing only on your diet or just on exercise, include both diet and exercise in your health portfolio. That way you will get the benefits of both treatments and maximize your return on investment. This works because the health benefits of good nutrition and physical activity are additive. In fact, in some cases the activity is essential for the diet to be effective, and vice versa.

Your goal should be to make smart investments in your health by choosing diet and activity strategies that you can live with and that will pay off long into the future. Applying Warren Buffett’s investment strategies can help guide you toward making these prudent decisions.

But a healthy, happy life involves more than good nutrition and exercise. You need to take time for yourself and do things you enjoy. Fortunately, there is another Buffett we can take inspiration from: Jimmy Buffett. Sometimes, escaping to Margaritaville is just what the doctor ordered!


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Get fit (and stay cool) in the pool

It’s hot! Whether you are swimming laps or splashing in a lake, swimming is a great way to stay cool. Swimming is also an excellent exercise to get in shape, build muscle, and to help you lose (and maintain) weight. Lap swimming is about as aerobically demanding and burns as many calories as land-based exercise such as walking or jogging. The benefits of swimming is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.

Swimmer


There is nothing that feels better on a hot summer day than going for a swim. But beyond being a fun way to cool down, swimming is a great way to get in shape. Swimming is also an excellent exercise for injury rehabilitation or for people with conditions like arthritis.

The fitness benefits of swimming are well established. Since swimming is a whole-body exercise it uses all of your major muscle groups, building strength, endurance, and aerobic fitness. Highly trained swimmers have VO2max values, considered the best measure of aerobic fitness, that are similar to runners and cyclists. If you have doubts about the fitness benefits of swimming, think about how muscular and lean Olympic swimmers are.

Depending on the stroke and speed, swimming ranges between 5 to 10 METs. (METs are units used to measure the intensity of activity; one MET is equivalent to sitting at rest) For example, doing the backstroke at a moderate speed is about 5 METs while swimming laps freestyle with vigorous effort is about 10 METs.

This range is similar to walking at 4 mph up to jogging at a 9 minute per mile pace. What if you are just spending time in the pool or lake rather than swimming laps? Swimming leisurely is 6 METs, still a decent workout.

Swimming is a great way to burn calories, too. Even at a moderate pace, swimming laps for 30 minutes can burn over 200 calories. The exact energy expenditure depends on the stroke (butterfly is highest, backstroke is lowest) and the speed, but for most people swimming will burn as many calories as spending the same amount of time exercising on land.

There are two major reasons for this. First, water is more dense than air, so you need to expend more energy to move your body through the water. Second, swimming is a whole-body exercise which requires more muscle activity compared to walking or jogging which mostly involve the legs.

You may be surprised to learn that novice swimmers expend more energy per lap than elite swimmers. For example, one study showed that competitive swimmers expend only 280 calories to swim a mile, while less experienced swimmers burn about 440 calories to cover the same distance. The reason for this is that experienced swimmers are more efficient, so they expend less energy.

Aquatic exercise is popular for both therapeutic and fitness purposes, especially for people who don’t tolerate exercise on land well. When you are submerged up to your waist, 50% of your weight is supported; when you are up to your chest, about 75% is supported. This reduces the impact of exercise in the water, perfect for people who have arthritis, osteoporosis, fibromyalgia, severe obesity, or who are recovering from injuries.

Exercise in the water doesn’t have to mean swimming laps. Water aerobics, aqua walking or jogging, and resistance training using foam “weights” or webbed gloves offer safe ways to increase strength and endurance for almost everyone. Most fitness facilities that have a pool offer group aquatic exercise classes and you can find instructions online for exercises that you can do in your own pool. If you are interested in using the pool for exercise, you can find information about aquatic exercise in general here and links to suggested exercises here.

The hot summer weather makes swimming and other water exercise appealing. But even if you don’t use the time for exercise, spending time playing in the pool or lake can still burn as many calories as going for a walk and is a great way to have fun and cool down!


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Get fit in just minutes per day!

We are cautioned to be skeptical of claims that you can lose weight while eating everything you want or that you can get in shape without spending hours at the gym. For good reason, too. These claims are essentially the equivalent of a get rich quick scheme, with the same expected results.

But there are some popular exercise programs that aim to increase your endurance, build muscle, and improve your health in less than 10 minutes per day. One is a popular seven minute workout that was published in a fitness journal and received much media attention. There is even an app for your phone that will guide you through the workout. If seven minutes seems like too much, there is even a four minute version! But is less than 10 minutes of exercise per day enough? This is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.

Stopwatch


Current guidelines call for all adults to participate in moderate intensity physical activity for 2 hours and 30 minutes per week or vigorous activity for 1 hour and 15 minutes per week. You can meet this recommendation by going for a brisk walk for 30 minutes on 5 days each week, running for 25 minutes on 3 days per week, or some combination of the two. In addition, you should do strengthening and flexibility exercise at least two days of the week.

For many people, these recommendations seem daunting. In order to make it easier to meet these goals, the exercise time can be divided into shorter sessions. For example, three 10 minute walks are a substitute for walking 30 minutes at once. But some people may still find doing enough exercise to get in shape a challenge, which is why the seven minute exercise program became so popular. And for many, an effective way to improve their fitness.

The effect of exercise on health and fitness is determined by the dose—the combination of intensity and duration. Improvements in aerobic fitness and strength are more related to the intensity of the exercise. As little as a few minutes per day of high-intensity training can be enough to improve fitness, which is why these programs include a combination of vigorous aerobic and strength exercises. In fact, bouts as short as one minute of very intense exercise can improve strength and aerobic fitness better than lower intensity exercise done for a longer time.

Because these programs tend to be intense means that you have to be fit to even get started. A very short program may not be a good choice for people who are not already in shape or who are new to exercise. There may be a greater risk of injury in people who are unfit and start exercising at a high intensity. At the very least, muscle soreness is likely and may impact your ability—and motivation—to repeat that exercise the next day. It is smart to start slowly and gradually increase exercise duration and intensity as your fitness improves.

If you are interested in starting a 10 minute per day routine you may want to start with an app or video that leads you through daily workouts. These may involve using your own body weight for resistance or may require using minimal equipment like dumbbells or resistance bands. If you are more of an expert, you could create your own routine using exercises you are familiar with. You should also warm up before and cool down after each session, something that may not be included in the 10 minute program.

While a 10 minute exercise program can improve your fitness, it shouldn’t be the only physical activity you get. Optimal health and fitness benefits are realized by combining daily physical activity with regular exercise. The best advice is to be as active as possible every day by limiting the time you spend sitting and looking for opportunities to move. Walking instead of driving, using the stairs, and taking the dog for a walk are good ways to increase your activity. You should also dedicate time for exercise to improve your strength and aerobic fitness at least 2–3 days per week. A very short exercise routine may make it easier for you to meet this goal.


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