Tag Archives: fiber

Juiced! Why fruit juice isn’t quite the same as eating fruit.

Nutrition information is often confusing and conflicting, making healthy food choices a challenge. Fortunately, there are some recommendations that are consistent. Among these is eating more fruit. But what if the way you were consuming fruit meant that you were missing some of the nutrients that make it so healthy?  This is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.

Orange-orange juice

Fruits are excellent sources of essential vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Fruit also provides energy in the form of naturally occurring sugar. Whole fruit and fruit juice are considered equivalent in current nutrition recommendations. However, fruit juice has been implicated as a contributor to weight gain and poor health, especially in children.

This is because fruit juice often comes in the form of fruit-flavored drinks that contain little or no actual juice but plenty of added sugar, so they are essentially soda without bubbles. Even though real fruit juice contains about the same amount of sugar and calories as soda or other sweetened drinks, they are not comparable when it comes to nutrition.

One consequence of consuming food and beverages that are flavored like fruit but are actually much sweeter is that it may make real fruit less palatable. People, especially children, may develop an expectation that “fruit” should taste as sweet soda or candy and prefer the sugar-sweetened version over the real fruit.

It seems reasonable that since juice is made from fruit, drinking juice must be the same as eating fruit. This isn’t always the case. Depending on how the juice was made will determine whether it is comparable to eating fruit.

Juice that is pressed is missing some of the nutrients of the fruit, most importantly fiber. A good example is apple juice. Apples contain sugar, vitamins, minerals, and fiber. The fiber is in the cell membranes of the apple and the juice, containing the sugar and other nutrients, is in the cells.

When you eat an apple, you are getting all the components of the apple, including the fiber. Apples that are pressed into juice contain the sugar, but not the fiber. In this case, eating the whole fruit is better than drinking the juice.

If the juice is made from whole fruit that is blended it may contain the fiber. Many smoothies are made with whole fruit, so these drinks are comparable to eating fruit. Better yet, some smoothies also include vegetables making them a good source of both fruits and vegetables.

Fruit smoothies are often used as meals or snacks to promote weight loss, but this requires some careful consumption to be effective. Many smoothies contain additional ingredients, some of which contribute nutrients as well as others that simply add sugar and calories. These extra calories can interfere with weight loss.

Additionally, drinking your fruit may lead to overconsumption that you don’t notice. It is far easier to drink juice or a smoothie than it is to eat a piece of fruit, so you are more likely to consume excess sugar and calories with juice. A single 8 oz. serving of apple juice can contain the juice of 3 or more apples. While drinking a glass of apple juice may not seem like a big deal, eating three apples would certainly get your attention!

While eating whole fruit is recommended over drinking juice, the most important thing is to include fruit in your diet. But make sure you are getting 100% real fruit, not sweetened, flavored drinks and snacks that are essentially candy and soda!

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Can supplements replace a healthy diet?

It’s no secret that eating lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources such as fish, soy, and legumes (beans) is good for you. In addition to providing carbohydrates, protein, and healthy fats, these foods are rich in vitamins, minerals, and fiber.

For example, Vitamins A and C act as antioxidants, reducing cellular damage from free radicals that may lead to heart disease and some cancers. Calcium, a mineral primarily found in dairy products, is important for bone health. Fiber in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is important for digestive health and lowering blood cholesterol.

In addition to the foods we eat, we can also get these nutrients from supplements. In fact, many of us probably take vitamin and mineral supplements already. But does taking supplements mean that you don’t have to eat a variety of healthy foods? The answer is no! In my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week I provide several reasons why replacing healthy foods with supplements is not recommended.

supplement pills

First, foods contain components beyond the nutrient you wish to supplement. For example, citrus fruits are high in vitamin C, as well as other vitamins, minerals, and fiber. Taking a vitamin C supplement instead of eating an orange means that you will miss out on those other nutrients.

Second, replacing foods with supplements may lead to making less healthy food choices. For example, you may not eat as many fruits, vegetables, or whole grains if you are getting adequate fiber through supplements or other fiber-fortified foods.

The best sources of fiber in the diet are fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains; meat, dairy, and refined grains contain little fiber. You can also get fiber from supplements, which can be added to foods and beverages, and fiber-fortified foods, in which fiber is added to foods that typically wouldn’t contain fiber.

But the health benefits are greater if you get fiber through healthy foods. For breakfast you could eat a healthy whole grain cereal or you could eat a chocolate chip granola bar that is fortified with fiber. Both contain fiber, but the granola bar has a lot more sugar, making it the less healthy choice.

Another example is fish and fish oil supplements. Many fish contain high levels of a type of fat called omega-3 fatty acids. These healthy fats improve blood lipids, lower inflammation, and reduce blood clotting, leading to a lower risk of heart attack and stroke. For this reason, eating at least two servings of fish per week, especially including salmon, mackerel, and tuna, is recommended.

You could also get these healthy fats by taking fish oil or other omega-3 fatty acid supplements. However, the health benefits of this approach are not as great as actually eating fish. In fact, most of the research showing benefits of fish oils involved studying people actually eating fish; the results for fish oil supplements are less consistent. It appears that you simply don’t get the same benefit from taking a fish oil supplement as you do from eating certain types of fish.

(You can find a good low-sci explanation of this research here: Source: Fish Oil Is Hugely Popular—But Should You Take It? | TIME)

The bottom line is that a healthy diet consisting of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fish and other lean protein sources is the best way to get the essential nutrients you need. There is no harm in taking a multivitamin/multimineral supplement to make up for inadequacies in your diet, but you shouldn’t replace healthy foods with supplements.

Nutrition, exercise, and health information can be confusing. 
But it doesn't have to be that way.
What can I help you with?
 drbrianparr@gmail.com | http://twitter.com/drbrianparr


Know your nutrients: Carbohydrates

Nutrition and healthy eating are common themes in my writing, so it seems appropriate to provide more information about the major nutrients in our diets: carbohydrates, fats, and protein. These nutrients provide nearly all of the calories we eat and have a large impact on our health. Given the importance of these nutrients, there tends to be much confusion about the different forms they come in and how much of each we should eat.

In my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week I  begin with carbohydrates. If this looks familiar, there is good reason: I have written about this topic in the past. Considering that I am asked basic questions about carbohydrates (and fat and protein) frequently, it is worth revisiting. Plus, it’s summer vacation so I am giving myself a bit of a break!



Carbohydrates are an important energy source in your diet. All carbohydrates contain four calories per gram. Grains, fruits, and vegetables are good sources of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates include starches, naturally occurring and added sugars, and fiber.

Carbohydrates are produced as a result of photosynthesis in plants and are stored as complex carbohydrates or starches in grains and many vegetables and as simple sugars in other vegetables and fruits. When you eat carbohydrates, your body breaks down the starches and converts the sugars to glucose, or blood sugar, which is used for energy.

The extent to which a food affects blood glucose is called the glycemic index, or GI. Refined carbohydrates, like white rice, pasta, and flour, and sugars typically have a high glycemic index, meaning they cause spikes in blood glucose. Whole grains, like whole wheat, whole oats, and brown rice, have more of a “low and slow” effect on blood glucose. This can help with blood glucose control and may affect appetite. For these reasons, low GI foods like complex carbohydrates from whole grains are called “good carbs,” in contrast to high GI refined grains and sugars, known as “bad carbs.” In reality, the glycemic index can provide a guide for selecting carbohydrates in the diet, but is no guarantee you are making healthy choices.

Carbohydrates also include fiber, the nondigestible portion of plants. Whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are rich sources of fiber while refined grains and sugars contain little, if any, fiber. Fiber comes in two forms, soluble and non-soluble. Non-soluble fiber, also called roughage, promotes good digestive health. Soluble fiber, like that found in oats, may help lower blood cholesterol. Studies show that diets higher in fiber tend to promote weight loss over time.

You should make an effort to reduce your intake of sugars, especially added sugars, in your diet. Even though all sugars have the same number of calories, foods and beverages containing added sugars should be avoided. Look for “corn syrup” and “high fructose corn syrup” on the label to identify added sugars. You may be surprised how much added sugar you consume! Fruits or 100% fruit juices are a healthy choice since they are rich in vitamins and minerals, even though they contain sugar.

Carbohydrates should be the major part of your diet. Current recommendations call for 45–65% of your daily calories to come from carbohydrates, so a person who eats 2000 calories per day should consume about 300 grams of carbohydrate. Sugars should be limited to less than 10% of calories, so the majority should be complex carbohydrates.

You can meet this goal by reducing your intake of sugars, especially added sugars, and refined grains while increasing your consumption of whole grains, fruits, and vegetables that are high in fiber. When comparing food labels, look for foods that contain whole grains (the first ingredient should be something like “whole wheat flour”) and higher levels of fiber. But be aware that some foods, like many breakfast cereals, contain whole grains but are also high in added sugar.

The best advice is to get the majority of your carbohydrates from real food, including vegetables, fruits, whole grains, and legumes, rather than from processed foods.

Nutrition, exercise, and health information can be confusing. 
But it doesn't have to be that way.
What can I help you with?
 drbrianparr@gmail.com | http://twitter.com/drbrianparr




Celebrate Food Day every day by eating real food

This Friday is Food Day, an annual event that aims to raise awareness about the food we eat and the impact it has on our health, environment, and quality of life. It turns out that many of us don’t know much about our food including where it came from, the method of preparation, and the quality and nutritional value.

As I describe in my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week, we are increasingly disconnected from our food, a fact that has implications for our health and the health of the environment.

Our lack of knowledge about the food we eat has been replaced by a heightened awareness about nutrients. In fact, many people follow diets that either emphasize or restrict certain nutrients in order to obtain health benefits. But the research to support the importance of these individual nutrients is often mixed or lacking altogether. Still, as we seek out sources of these nutrients we are led to supplements, such as fish oil, or processed foods with added nutrients, like fiber.

To be sure, fish oil and fiber are good for us. But does that mean that taking a fish oil supplement will have the same health benefits as actually eating fish instead of, say, fried chicken? Or is adding fiber to a chocolate breakfast bar equivalent to getting more fiber from fruits and vegetables? Both research and common sense suggest that the answer is no.

Beyond the individual nutrients, the food we eat has changed. Even the way food gets to our table has changed. Since nearly half of our meals are eaten outside the home, it’s not even “our” table anymore. And when we do eat at home, take-out and prepackaged heat-and-eat meals have become the norm. In fact, the idea of cooking meals from ingredients is so foreign that we have to be reminded about how and why we should do it.

Events like Food Day are an attempt to get us back to the basics of cooking and eating real food. This, of course, is how people ate for years before the obesity and diabetes epidemics we are dealing with now, so eating real food again is a step toward reducing these, and other, health problems.

In addition to the potential health benefits of focusing on food over nutrients, this approach is also good for the environment and the economy. It turns out that eating healthier food promotes sustainable agriculture and can support local farmers. Locally grown produce, which is picked at the peak of freshness, can be more nutritious and have a lower environmental impact than food from factory farms which is often shipped great distances. And most important, food from local farms usually tastes better!

This is the point of Food Day. We should make ourselves aware of where our food comes from and do our best to eat “real food” as opposed to processed and pre-packaged foods that tend to be high in calories, added sugar, salt, and unhealthy fats. When possible, we should buy foods that are grown locally to minimize the environmental impact and support local farmers who live, work, and pay taxes in our area.

It turns out that focusing on food, not nutrients, will have a positive impact on your health, the environment, and quality of life for you and others. And that is why it is called Food Day, not nutrient day. You can learn more about how you can celebrate Food Day every day at www.foodday.org.

Stealthy Healthy Eating

My Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week is about the many processed foods that include added nutrients, primarily vitamins, minerals, and fiber, to make them healthier. While this seems like a good thing—helping people get enough essential nutrients, even if they eat a poor diet—there are drawbacks to using these foods instead of eating actual food that contains these nutrients.

What if there was a way to get the benefits of eating vegetables without having to eat any vegetables? This may be a dream for millions of American children and adults who don’t eat enough vegetables.

Thanks to creative food processing, the healthy components of vegetables can be added to many foods, including soda, candy bars, and other sweets. Books and websites contain recipes for adding pureed vegetables to brownies and other baked goods. There is even a new line of prepackaged pureed vegetables to use!

The recommended intake of vegetables ranges from one cup per day for young children to 3 cups for adults. A simpler guideline is to fill half of your plate with fruits and vegetables at each meal. The goal should be to eat a variety of vegetables throughout the week.

There are plenty of good reasons for people to eat vegetables. Most vegetables are a low-calorie source of essential vitamins and minerals. The dietary fiber found in vegetables (and fruits and whole grains) plays a role in maintaining a healthy body weight, lowering cholesterol, and reducing the risk of some cancers.

Fiber is increasingly added to processed foods including granola bars and energy bars. It is possible to get up to half of your daily recommended intake of fiber by eating a single Fiber One bar. That is the equivalent of a cup or more of most vegetables! Considering that many of these snacks are essentially candy bars, they are a tasty way to get fiber.

Vitamins and minerals have long been available as supplements and added to certain foods, including products made from grains like pasta and bread. But now you can get vitamins in many soft drinks, many of which have as much sugar as soda. And calcium is added to a variety of foods from breakfast cereals to snacks.

There are, of course, some benefits of doing this. People who don’t eat a healthy diet can get enough essential nutrients through these products. Some of these foods are low in calories so they can help people who are trying to lose weight.

While these “hidden” nutrients may seem like a good solution for people who don’t eat enough vegetables, this form of stealthy healthy eating may have some negative consequences.

These processed foods may be high in sugar, fat, and calories which could contribute to weight gain. The fact that these foods are designed to taste good—many include chocolate—may lead people to overeat. Aside from excess calories, eating far too much fiber could cause GI discomfort or other health problems.

More concerning, though, is the fact that these foods set an expectation that healthy foods should be sweet. This is particularly problematic in children, who may avoid eating vegetables (and other healthy foods) in favor of sweet drinks and snacks that contain the same nutrients.

Additionally, getting vitamins, minerals, and fiber through processed foods keeps people from learning how to make healthy choices and prepare real food. This has consequences for developing healthy eating habits in both children and adults.

Focusing on getting individual nutrients over eating a variety of healthy foods is thought to be an important cause of the current obesity epidemic. Relying on processed foods with added vitamins, minerals, and fiber may be doing more harm than good to your health.

The bottom line is that you should get your nutrients from real food and balance what you eat with daily physical activity. Remember, good health comes from making smart choices, not from a bottle or a box!