October was Breast Cancer Awareness month. Thanks to the efforts of local and national organizations and a number of events in our area, we should all be aware of the importance of education, screening, treatment, and research toward a cure for breast cancer. These are all worthy goals that deserve our full attention and support. Now it is time to take the awareness that we gained over the past month and turn it in to action for the rest of the year. This is the topic of my Health & Fitness column in the Aiken Standard this week.
Approximately 1 in 8 women will develop breast cancer. The American Cancer Society estimates that around 300,000 new cases of breast cancer are diagnosed and nearly 40,000 women die from this disease each year. Breast cancer can occur in men, but these cases are rare, so the focus is rightfully on women.
Much attention is given to genetic factors that increase the risk of breast cancer, in particular certain gene mutations, including BRCA1 and BRCA2. Between 20–30% of cases occur in women who have a family history of breast cancer, which can double the risk of being diagnosed.
However, most women who are diagnosed with breast cancer have no family history, so there are other factors that play a role. Many of these are lifestyle factors that can reduce the risk for and improve the treatment and survival of breast cancer patients. The good news is that these changes benefit all of us because they also reduce the risk of other cancers, cardiovascular disease, and most other chronic diseases.
Avoid tobacco use. Smoking may increase the risk of breast cancer and certainly increases the risk of other cancers, especially lung cancer, as well as heart attack, stroke, and other lung diseases. Not smoking, or quitting now, is among the best health decisions a woman can make. E-cigarettes are not a safe alternative to cigarettes, so quitting really means quitting all forms of smoking.
Consume alcohol in moderation. Alcohol can alter the level of hormones, including estrogen, that increase breast cancer risk. Women who consume more than two drinks per day increase their risk of breast cancer by 20% over women who don’t drink.
Maintain a healthy body weight. Being overweight can increase the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women by 30–60%. Excess body fat can alter the levels of estrogen and other hormones. The good news is that losing as little as 10 pounds can reduce this risk. Additionally, being overweight is associated with a higher risk of diabetes and heart disease, among other conditions.
Be physically active every day. Regular activity and exercise can lower breast cancer risk by as much as 20%by reducing the level of certain hormones that are associated with breast cancer. Women who exercise also tend to handle breast cancer treatment better than women who aren’t active and exercise can reduce the risk of cancer reoccurrence by 25%. These benefits can be achieved through 45–60 minutes of brisk walking five days per week.
Eat a healthy diet. The evidence from studies on the effect of diet on breast cancer risk is mixed, with more research needed. In general, increasing fruit, vegetable, and whole grain intake is associated with at least some decrease in breast cancer risk. These foods are rich in vitamins, minerals, and fiber, so eating more of them is beneficial for reasons beyond cancer prevention.
The bottom line is that turning awareness into action to improve health behaviors can prevent breast cancer and reduce the risk of other cancers as well as many other serious health problems.